9 étapes importantes dans l’histoire des images en mouvement, de Zoetrope au GIF

Les images en mouvement, ont une histoire très longue et très intéressante ; voici quelques-unes des étapes les plus importantes de Zoetrope à GIF.

Les films font autant partie de notre vie quotidienne que le fait de manger et de dormir. Mais il est intéressant de noter qu’ils existent depuis un certain temps.

Nous allons ici faire un très court tour d’horizon de l’évolution du cinéma depuis ses débuts jusqu’au GIF moderne. Nous nous pencherons ici sur quelques-unes des étapes les plus remarquables de l’histoire du cinéma.

Veuillez noter qu’il ne s’agit pas d’un historique complet, mais seulement d’un aperçu très rapide. De nombreux jalons importants ont été omis par souci de concision, mais vous êtes invités à en discuter dans les commentaires.

Quelles sont les étapes les plus importantes de l’histoire du cinéma ?

Voici donc quelques uns des jalons les plus remarquables de l’histoire de l’image en mouvement. Cette liste est loin d’être exhaustive et n’a pas d’ordre précis.

1. Le phénakistiscope a produit quelques-unes des toutes premières images en mouvement

https://twitter.com/royalsociety/status/1051367006728060929

Les films cinématographiques fonctionnent grâce à un phénomène appelé ” persistance de la vision “. Cette situation a été décrite pour la première fois dans un article de Peter Mark Roget dans les années 1820.

L’article intitulé ” Explication d’une illusion d’optique dans l’apparence des rayons d’une roue vue à travers des ouvertures verticales” a donné l’impulsion pour l’ensemble.

Un peu plus tard, au début des années 1830, un physicien belge du nom de Joseph Plateau et un professeur autrichien de géométrie pratique, Simon Stampfer, ont inventé le ” phénakistiscope“.

Cet appareil de base était le premier appareil pratique connu qui créait l’illusion du mouvement fluide d’un cheval. Elle consistait en une série d’images imprimées autour d’un disque circulaire.

En le tournant, le spectateur a l’impression que les images statiques sont réellement en mouvement lorsqu’il les regarde.

2. Le zoetrope était un autre exemple du cinéma des débuts

Zoetrope
Zoetrope

À peu près à la même époque, un autre dispositif a été développé pour simuler les mouvements réels d’un observateur humain. Cet appareil, appelé “Zoetrope”, était similaire au “phénakistoscope”, mais comportait des dessins de choses en mouvement dans un tambour rotatif.

Le spectateur regardait les images à travers une étroite fente verticale sur le côté du tambour. Lorsque le tambour tourne, on a l’impression que quelque chose bouge à l’intérieur de l’appareil.

Une version jouet de celui-ci a été introduite dans les années 1860 et devait devenir un jouet très populaire auprès de nombreuses personnes.

3. La chronophotographie a été l’un des prochains grands bonds pour les images en mouvement

Chronophotography
Chronophotography

During the late Victorian period a photographic technique called ” chronophotography” was developed. This technique was able to capture several phases of movement of any subject – like a person walking down a staircase.

The earliest use of “chronophotography” served the scientific investigation of locomotion. But it was also used as an aid for animal keepers or as reference material for the artists of that time.

Originally it was not intended for use as entertainment, but the results of the technology would find other applications in the embryonic film industry. The effort to develop real cinema films was now, well, set in motion.

4. One of the cinema films of fırst was made in the 1870s

Another important milestone in the history of cinema was the work of an Eadweard Muybridge. In the late 1870s he succeeded in capturing images of a horse in motion with a battery of about 24 cameras.

He called her ” Sallie Gardner at a gallop” and later projected her on a screen at the California School of Fine Arts. This was officially the earliest known motion picture in history.

A completely new industry was about to be born. It would take the 20th century by storm.

5. The world’s first film actors were recorded and screened in the 1890s

Schmiede-Szene
Schmiede-Szene

Another important milestone in the film history was the year 1893 when the time jumped a little bit forward. A movie with the title ” Blacksmith Scene” was created by William Kennedy Dickson.

It is played with a ” Kinetoscope“, which was an early exhibition device for cinema films for playing moving pictures. They were designed to be viewed by one person through a tiny peephole window at the top of the device.

The film was shown to the public on 9 May 1893 and is the earliest known example of actors playing a role in a cinema film.

6. The first hand-coloured film appeared in 1895

Annabelle Serpentine Dancing
Annabelle Serpentine Dancing

A few years later, in 1895, another milestone in the history of cinema was reached. The film is entitled ” Annabelle Serpentine Dance” and is the earliest known example of a hand-coloured film in history.

In the same year Charles Francis Jenkins introduced the first real film projector and had it patented. The following year, the first building dedicated exclusively to the screening of cinema films was opened in New Orleans.

The Vitascope Hall was converted from an empty shop building. The modern cinema was born.

7. At the beginning of the 20th century the development of the cinema film experienced a massive boom

At the beginning of the 20th century the film industry experienced a real boom. Many new techniques such as stop-motion, true color film and even early 3D were introduced at that time.

Cinemas began to become commonplace in many large cities, and finally sound was added – much to the astonishment of the audience at the time. Photography and film also began to find other uses, for example on the battlefields of World War I, and animation became a thing of the past.

Some of the biggest names in motion pictures would also be born during this period, such as Disney, Universal, Paramount and 20th Century Fox, to name but a few. The film was there forever.

8. Visual effects, modern 3D and CGI were another important development

Leaping forward almost half a century (not to mention glossing over many other milestones for the sake of brevity), one of the next major developments in motion pictures was the release of “Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope”. This film, which pioneered visual effects, was to lead to the creation of Industrial Light and Magic.

This would trigger a kind of arms race to develop ever more amazing and fantastic special picture and sound effects for movies. As a result, many new techniques would be developed, including computer-generated images (CGI) and modern 3D films.

The latter had existed since the earliest days of cinema and experienced something like a golden age in the 1950s and 1960s, but it had gone out of fashion. With the help of modern techniques, such as CGI, 3D would experience a certain revival in the second quarter of the 20th century until modern times

9. The rise and development of GIFs

Würfel-Animation
Cube GIF animation from several individual images

And finally, perhaps a little strangely, we will conclude our tour through the history of cinema film with GIFs. GIFs, or “Graphics Interchange Format” to give them their full name, are now something of an occupational hazard on the Internet, really grown up.

They were first developed in the late 1980s by Steve Wilhite of CompuServe and have since taken the Internet by storm. These highly compressed files, reminiscent of the early days of the cinema, consist of a series of still images that can be played back with a time delay to simulate animation.

They were originally developed to allow uploading of images in compressed form so that slow modems could upload them without problems. GIFs would soon be used by many Internet users as part of their website design, either as placeholders or as actual graphic design features.

But the inherent fun that could be had with this medium soon enabled Internet users to develop a kind of subculture by creating and sharing it on a large scale. Today they are among the most watched “films” in the world.

But what will the future bring for the film? Maybe newer developments, like VR and AR, could simply be the next leap in film history?